An electronic component is a tool in the form of an object that is a supporting part of an electronic circuit that can work according to its use. Starting from those attached directly to the circuit board in the form of PCB, CCB, Protoboard and Veroboard by soldering or not sticking directly to the circuit board (with other connecting devices, such as cables). This electronic component consists of one or more electronic materials, which consist of one or several material elements and if put together, for the desired circuit design to function according to the function of each component, there are those to regulate current and voltage, level the current, insulate current, amplify current signal and many other functions.
Each electronic component has its own function in an electronic circuit, there are those that function as inhibitors, as amplifiers, as conductors, as filters and there are those that function as controllers. These electronic components also have their respective values and types so that they can carry out their functions according to the wishes of the electronic circuit designers.
Types of Electronic Components
Based on the characteristics, Electronic Components can be classified into two main groups, active electronic components and passive electronic components.
Active Electronic Componets
Active Electronic Components are types of electronic components that require external current to operate. Aactive electronic components can only function if they get an electric current source from outside (external).
Electronic components that are classified as Active components are Diodes, Transistors and ICs (Intragrated Circuits) which are made of semiconductor materials such as silicon, germanium, selenium and metal oxides.
Diode is one of the active components produced by the junction between P-type and N-type semiconductor materials. This component provides very low resistance to current flow in one direction and very high resistance in the opposite direction. This characteristic allows the diode to be used in applications where the circuit requires a different response according to the direction of the current flowing in it
Transistor is a very important component in the modern electronics. In analog circuits, transistors are used in amplifiers . Analog circuits include loudspeakers, stable power sources (stabilizers) and radio signal amplifiers. In digital circuits, transistors are used as high-speed switches. Some transistors can also be arranged in such a way that they function as logic gates, memory and other circuit functions
IC (Integrated Circuits)
Integrated circuits are complex rods made on a small wedge of silicon. Integrated circuits can contain from 10 to more than 100,000 active devices (transistors and diodes). Even in some special applications (such as high-level amplifiers), integrated circuits have replaced most conventional discrete circuits.
Integrated circuits are divided into two general classes, linear (analog) and digital (TTL, Transistor, Transistor logic). A typical example of a linear integrated circuit is an operational amplifier (Op-Amp). A typical example of a digital integrated circuit is logic gates. A number of devices bridge the gap between the analog and digital worlds such as analog – digital converters (ADC), digital – analog converters (DAC), and timers
Passive Electronic Componets
Passive Electronic Components are types of electronic components that do not require an external electric current source for their operation. Passive Electronic components are components that cannot (by themselves) generate voltage or current. Electronic components that are classified as passive components include resistors, capacitors, inductors, and transformer.
Resistors are electronic components that are designed to have two poles which can later be used to withstand an electric current when an electric voltage flows between the two poles. Resistors are usually widely used as part of electronic circuits. Not only that, this one component is also the most frequently used among other components. Resistor is a component made of insulating material which contains a certain value in accordance with the desired resistance value.
In order to use a resistor properly we need to know several things such as the material of manufacture, the resistance value [expressed in Ohms (Ω), kiloohms (kΩ), or megaohms (MΩ)], tolerance (expressed as the maximum and minimum permissible deviations from the resistor). stated value), power rating/discharge (which must be equal to or greater than its maximum power dissipation), noise and its behavior at high frequencies
A capacitor is a device used to store electric charge. As a result, the capacitor is a reservoir in which charge can be stored and then released slowly. Typical applications include collecting capacitors and filtering capacitors used in power supplies, mixing ac signals between amplifier stages, and separating signals in power supplies (in other words, effectively embedding power supply for signals
Every inductor of any shape always has an inductance, but generally the price is small, except for changes in current with a fairly large frequency. A form of wire that is intentionally made to have a relatively large inductance is called an inductor, and is generally a coil of wire consisting of several turns.
Basically a transformer is a passive component with 4 (four) or more ends in 2 (two) parts called the primary and secondary parts. The transformer is used to convert the alternating voltage on the primary into an alternating voltage on the secondary, using the principle of magnetic flux. Transformers are also used for impedance transformation