Definition, Works and Functions of Microprocessor

By | August 15, 2021

Definition of Microprocessor

The microprocessor is a chip (IC = Integrated Circuits) which contains an ALU (Arithmetic-Logic Unit) circuit, a CU (Control Unit) circuit and a collection of registers. The microprocessor is also called the CPU (Central Processing Unit) which is used as the brain/main processor in a computer system.

The microprocessor contains combinational logic and sequential digital logic that operates on the numbers and symbols represented in the binary number system. The microprocessor can be said to be the brain of all computers, whether the computer is in the form of a laptop, desktop or server.

Microprocessor Block Diagram on Computer

A microprocessor basically consists of an Arithmetic and Logical Unit or ALU (Arithmetic Logical Unit), a Register Array and a Control Unit. The following is a Microprocessor Block Diagram on a Computer.

Microprocessor system with separate components


How the Microprocessor Works

From the Microprocessor Block Diagram above, it can be seen that a Microprocessor basically consists of 3 main parts, namely the Arithmetic Logical Unit (ALU), the Register Array and the Control Unit which are connected to the INPUT (Keyboard, sensor) section and the OUTPUT section (monitor screen, printer, motor). and the Memory unit section. The microprocessor executes a command or instruction based on the following sequence, namely Fetch (fetch or fetch the required command and data), Decode (Reading the password) and Execute (Running Command or Executing Command).

An Instruction or command is initially stored in the Memory unit sequentially (sequential order). The microprocessor fetches or retrieves these instructions from memory, then translates them and executes these instructions until they get a STOP or stop instruction. The result of the execution is then sent in Binary to the OUTPUT port. Among these processes, there is a Register Array which functions to store temporary data while the ALU in the Microprocessor is used to perform computational functions.

A Microprocessor cannot run a system directly. The microprocessor must be added other components such as RAM, ROM, Clock, Serial Com Port to work. In other words, the microprocessor cannot stand alone, but must be supported by other components.

The first microprocessor produced was a 4-bit microprocessor from Intel, named the Intel 4004, then developed into the Intel 4008, then developed again, into 8 bits with the production of the 8008 and 8085 series.

Microprocessors in its development are divided into 4 types :

  1. Processor Bit Slices: CPU design by adding the number of bit slices (slices) for certain applications, commonly used the term custom CPU.
  2. General Purpose CPU: CPU for general purpose or microcomputer.
  3. I / O Processor: A special processor that functions to handle input / output helps the main processor.
  4. Dedicated/Embedded Controller: Making machines smart, such as: washing machines, copiers, ovens, sewing machines, and microwaves. This type of processor is more popularly called a microcontroller.

Microprocessor Function

The main function of the microprocessor is as a control unit that controls the entire work of the microprocessor system. Other functions are:

1. Retrieve instructions and data from memory.
2. Move data to and from memory.
3. Sending control signals and serving interrupt signals.
4. Provides timing for the work cycle of the microprocessor system.
5. Perform logical and arithmetic operations.

Difference between microprocessor and microcontroller

The difference between a microprocessor and a microcontroller can be seen in the table below:


1 There is no RAM, ROM COM PORT and IO There is already RAM, ROM, COM Port and IO
2 System specifications can be upgraded System specifications cannot be changed (FIx)
3 The price of a system is relatively expensive The price of a system is relatively cheap
4 Higher abilities Limited abilities
5 Can process a lot of data Process less data
6 Easy to maintain and repair One system malfunction then the microcontroller cannot be used at all