Basic Theory of Semiconductors

By | August 13, 2021

Basic Principles and Definition of Semiconductors

Televisions, Cameras and LED lighting are the result of Semiconductor Technology. Important components that make up an Electronic Equipment such as Transistors, Diodes and Integrated Circuits (IC) are active electronic components made of semiconductor materials. Therefore, Semiconductor materials have a very large influence on the development of Electronic Technology.

Semiconductor material  is a material that conducts electricity that is not as good as a conductor but also not as bad as an insulator which does not conduct electricity at all. Basically, the ability to conduct electricity Semiconductors are between conductors and insulators. However, Semiconductors are different from Resistors, because Semiconductors can conduct electricity or function as Conductors if given a certain electric current, certain temperature and also certain procedures or requirements.

Semiconductor Devices

Doping Process on Semiconductors

Semiconductor materials include Silicon, Selenium, Germanium and Metal Oxides. To process these semiconductor materials into electronic components, it is necessary to carry out a “Doping” process, which is a process to add impurities to pure semiconductors (intrinsic semiconductors) so that they can change their electrical properties or characteristics. Some of the materials used to add semiconductor impurities include Arsenic, Indium and Antimony. These materials are often referred to as “Dopant”, while Semiconductors that have gone through the “Doping” process are called Extrinsic Semiconductors.

Semiconductor Types

Semiconductors that have gone through the Doping process, namely Impurity Semiconductors or Extrinsic Semiconductors that are ready to become Electronic Components can be divided into 2 types :

  1. N-type Semiconductor

It’s  N-type because this type of semiconductor charge carrier is composed of electrons. Electrons are negatively charged so they are called Negative Types or N-types.

In Silicon (Si) semiconductors, the Doping Process by adding Arsenic or Antimony will make the Semiconductor an N-type Semiconductor.

There are 2 (two) charge carriers in the N-type Semiconductor, Electrons as the Majority Carrier and Hole as the Minority Carrier.

  1. P-Type Semiconductor

It’s P-type because this type of semiconductor lacks electrons or is called a “hole”. When the charge carrier is a Hole, the Semiconductor is a Positively Charged Semiconductor.

In semiconductors made from Silicon (Si), the Doping Process by adding Indium will make the Semiconductor a P-type Semiconductor.

The 2 (two) charge carriers contained in the P-type Semiconductor are the Hole as the Majority Carrier and the Electrons as the Minority Carrier).

Active Electronic Components whose basic materials are made of Semiconductors include:

 Integrated Circuits

 Transistors

 Diodes

Electronic components made of semiconductors are electronic components that are very sensitive to ESD (Electro Static Discharge). Therefore, special handling is needed in the production of these components.