Basic Electronic Components with Functions and Symbols

By | November 23, 2019

An Electronic equipment is an equipment consisting of several Types of Electronic Components and each Electronic Component has its own functions in an Electronic Circuit. Along with the development of technology, Electronic components are increasingly varied and the types also increase. But the basic components forming an electronic equipment such as resistors, capacitors, transistors, diodes, inductors and ICs are still in use today.

Electronic Components have 2 types of components, namely:

1. Passive Components

Passive components are components that can work without a voltage source.
Examples are capacitors, inductors and transformers.

2. Active Components

Active component is a component that cannot work without a voltage source.
Examples are diodes and transistors.

Types of Electronic Components

Below are the basic electronic components and their functions and symbols


Resistor is a Passive Electronic Component that serves to inhibit and regulate electric current in an Electronic circuit by producing a voltage drop in accordance with the current flowing. The Resistor Value Unit is Ohm (Ω). Resistor values ​​are marked with a numeric code or color bracelet found on the body of the resistor.

Resistor Functions:

1. As a resistance to electric current in an electric circuit
2. Minimizing the inflow for other electronic components

The types of resistors include:
1. Resistor which value is fixed
2. Resistor which value can be set, this resistor is called the Variable Resistor
or potentiometer.
3. Resistor which value can change according to the light intensity, this resistor is called the LDR or Light Dependent Resistor
4. Resistor which value can change according to changes in temperature, this type of resistor is called the PTC (Positive Temperature Coefficient) and NTC (Negative Temperature Coefficient)



Capacitor or also known as Condensor are Passive Electronic Components that can store energy or electric charges for a while. The unit of value for Capacitor (Condensor) is Farad (F)

Capacitor (Condensor) Functions:

1. Can choose radio waves in the tuner circuit,
2. Ampere amplifier and DC voltage current
3. Sound frequency filter
4. Current rectifier on the rectifier
5. As a Filter in the Power Supply Circuit.
6. Electromagnetic wave filter
7. Amplitude wave regulator etc.

The types of capacitors include:

1. Capacitor which fixed values ​​and no polarity. If based on the manufacturing material, the capacitors whose value is permanent consist of Paper Capacitors, Mica Capacitors, Polyster Capacitors and Ceramic Capacitors.
2. Capacitor which value is Fixed but have Positive and Negative Polarity, these Capacitors are Electrolyte Capacitor (ELCO) and Tantalum Capacitors
3. Capacitor which values ​​can be set, these types of capacitors are often called Variables


Inductor (coil) is one of the passive components of electronics that can produce a magnetic field when flowed by an electric current and vice versa can produce electricity if it is given a magnetic field. In general, the inductor is made of copper conducting wire which is formed into coils or windings. the inductance unit is called henry (h = henry, mh = mili henry, uh = micro henry, nh = nano henry) with the notation writing the letter L.

The main function of an inductor in a circuit is to counteract the fluctuations in the current passing through it. One of the applications in DC circuits is to produce a constant DC voltage with respect to current load fluctuations. In AC circuit applications, one of the uses is to be able to absorb unwanted changes in current fluctuations. There will be more functions of the inductor that can be applied to the filter circuit, tuner and so on.

The types of Inductor include:

1. Inductor which value is fixed
2. Inductor which value can be set or often called the Coil Variable.


Diode is an Active Electronic Component that serves to deliver electric current in one direction and inhibits electric current from the opposite direction. Diodes are made of semiconductor material (silicon or germanium). Diode is composed of 2 materials, namely: P type material (anode) and N type material (anode).

Based on the diode function consists of:

1. Ordinary diodes or rectifier diodes which are generally made of silicon and function as a rectifier alternating current (AC) to direct current (DC).

2. Zener Diode (Zener Diode) which functions as a security circuit after
the voltage determined by the Zener Diode in question. This voltage is often called the Zener Voltage.

3. LED (Light Emitting Diode) or Light Emission Diode is a diode that can emit monochromatic light.

4. Photo Diode (Photo Diode) is a photodiode that is sensitive to light so often
used as a sensor.

5. Schottky diodes (SCR or Silicon Control Rectifiers) are diodes that function as controllers.

6. Laser Diode (Laser Diode) is a diode that can emit laser light.
Laser diodes are often abbreviated as LD.


Transistor is an Active Electronic Component that has many functions and a component that plays a very important role in the world of modern electronics.

Some functions of the transistor include:
1. A current amplifier that can amplify an electrical signal,
2. Switch (Disconnect and connector)
3. Voltage Stability
4. Signal Modulation
5. Rectifier and others.

Transistors have 3 electrodes / terminals (feet) namely Base / Base (B), Emitter (E) and Collector / Collector (K). While based on the structure, the transistor consists of 2 types of structure, namely PNP and NPN.

UJT (Union Junction Transistor), FET (Field Effect Transistor) and MOSFET (Metal Oxide
Semiconductor FET) is also a family of transistors.

6. IC (Integrated Circuit)

IC (Integrated Circuit) is an Active Electronic Component which consists of a combination of hundreds or even millions of transistors, resistors and other components integrated into an electronic circuit in a small package.
IC (Integrated Circuit) forms also vary, ranging from 3-legged to hundreds of feet (terminals). IC functions also vary, ranging from amplifiers, switching, controllers to storage media. In general, IC is an Electronic Component that is used as a Brain in an Electronic Equipment. IC is a Semi conductor component that is very sensitive to ESD (Electro Static Discharge).
For example, an IC that functions as a brain on a computer called a microprocessor consists of 16 million transistors and this number does not yet include other electronic components.